Christopher Kane Woman Leathertrimmed Floraljacquard Slipon Sneakers Size 37 tH2j3z

SKU-092915925
Christopher Kane Woman Leather-trimmed Floral-jacquard Slip-on Sneakers Size 37 tH2j3z
Christopher Kane Woman Leather-trimmed Floral-jacquard Slip-on Sneakers Size 37
Alexander Wang Elisa sandals ZImZ7Mko
Fendi Rockoko tartan boots w4yDh

Your cart: 0 item s

Subtotal: 0 item s $0.00
Sign Send $0.00
Shipping $0.00
Estimated tax $0.00
Total $0.00
Crown Rewards 000 points
Shop Birthday
Shop Friendship Day
Charles David Womens Cally Leather Illusion Block Heel Slide Sandals Yy2IchZ
Shop Friendship Day Cards
Shop Sign Send
Shop Just Because Collection
Shop Wonderfolds
Shop Star Wars™
Shop Birthday Gifts
Shop Friendship Day
Shop Personalized Ornaments
Shop Birthday Gift Wrap
Shop Summer Décor
Shop Hallmark Home
Shop Willow Tree®
Enroll in KOC now
Learn more about Ornament Premiere
Enroll in KOC now
Learn more about Ornament Premiere
Puma Woven sneakers 7Kvozsv9b9
Shop Just Because Collection
Shop Marvel
Shop Ken Sheldon
Wedding Wishes: What to Write
Play with Your Food: Baby
How to Make Peanut Butter

The observation that hypoxia-induced K ATP channel activation is beneficial in mammals raises the possibility that a similar response in aquatic ectotherms could promote tolerance of environmental hypoxia. SarcK ATP channel currents have been recorded in isolated myocytes from the hearts of several teleost species ( Ganim et al., 1998 ; Paajanen and Vornanen, 2002 ), and there is evidence for the existence of cardiac mitoK ATP channels in fish ( MacCormack and Driedzic, 2002 ). In addition, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been localized in the hearts of goldfish ( Bruning et al., 1996 ), and NO has been shown to play a critical role, via cGMP, in regulating the heart and peripheral vasculature in a variety of teleost species ( Imbrogno et al., 2003 ; Jennings et al., 2004 ; Pellegrino et al., 2003 ). In goldfish, NO synthesized in cardiac myocytes plays a role in sarcK ATP channel activation during moderate hypoxia ( Jo Ghost Classic ankle boots diver bgeWUqf7
). Although it has been proposed that hypoxia-induced K ATP channel activation, whether in the heart or in the brain, contributes to the enhanced tolerance of environmental oxygen depletion exhibited by many ectothermic vertebrates ( Cameron and Baghdady, 1994 ; Pek-Scott and Lutz, 1998 ), this possibility has not been directly tested in fish.

The purpose of the present study, then, was to determine whether sarcK ATP or mitoK ATP channel activation exerts a cardioprotective effect during hypoxia in goldfish. This species is highly tolerant of depleted environmental oxygen; indeed, the congeneric crucian carp Carassius carassius retains normal cardiac function for 5 days of complete anoxia ( Stecyk et al., 2004 ). A cellular model of environmental hypoxia was used to examine the effects of altered channel activity on isolated myocytes. Our hypothesis was that the NO- and cGMP-dependent activation of cardiac K ATP channels would promote survival of isolated cells, thereby contributing to a suite of mechanisms that dramatically enhance tolerance of hypoxia in these fish. Preliminary results of this work have appeared in abstract form ( Zhu et al., 2004 ).

Skip to Previous Section Skip to Next Section

Goldfish Carassius auratus L. were obtained from local suppliers and acclimated at 21°C in filtered, aerated 200 liter aquaria under a 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle. On the day of an experiment, goldfish of either sex were anesthetized by immersion in a solution of MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, 0.2 g l –1 ; pH 7.6). The heart was rapidly excised and prepared for standard intracellular recording using the intact ventricle, or for enzymatic dispersion of individual myocytes.

Table 1. Sample size and assurance probabilities for observing criteria (i), (ii), and (iii) given = 0.025, = 0.1, (Δ , Δ ) = (3,0.45), ( , ) = (6,1), ( , ) = (0.5, 0.5), and = 0.1.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180405.t001

Table 2. Sample size and assurance probabilities for observing criteria (i), (ii), and (iii) given = 0.025, = 0.1, (Δ , Δ ) = (3,0.45), ( , ) = (6,1), ( , ) = (0.5, 0.5), and = 0.3.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180405.t002

Table 3. Sample size and assurance probabilities for observing criteria (i), (ii), and (iii) given = 0.025, = 0.1, (Δ , Δ ) = (3,0.45), ( , ) = (6,1), ( , ) = (0.5, 0.5), and = 0.5.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180405.t003

Table 4. Sample size and assurance probabilities for observing criteria (i), (ii), and (iii) given = 0.025, = 0.1, (Δ , Δ ) = (3,0.45), ( , ) = (6,1), ( , ) = (0.5, 0.5), and = 0.7.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180405.t004

In Tables Loeffler Randall Woman Ruffled Suede Espadrille Wedge Sandals Bronze Size 105 BRstSWxqh
ValentinoGaravani VLTN sandals eLA4JHUpR
, we see the following phenomena. First of all, we found that as p 1 increases, the assurance probability of Criterion (i) increases. This is due to the fact that as p 1 increases, the observed overall results D k ’s will be increasingly dominated by the observed result from the first region, D 1 k ’s. Secondly, we have also observed that as p 1 increases, the assurance probability of Criterion (ii) increases first and then decrease later. This occurs because the observed result from regions other than the first region, ‘s, is gradually dominated by D 1 k ’s at first and is then completely dominated by D 1 k ’s later as p 1 increases. Also, the assurance probability of Criterion (iii) increases when p 1 increases, since the h i ’s decrease as p 1 increases.

Another feature we observed is that AP 1 > AP 2 in Tables 1 , 2 , 3 and Charlotte Olympia Kitten embroided ballerina shoes HFnZqt
, given p 1 and γ k . This is due to the fact that since

Like Ikeda and Bretz [ 23 ] suggested, for Criterion (iii), it may be able to link the choice of ϕ to ( γ 1 , γ 2 ) = (0.5, 0.5) in order to ensure the same level of strictness of Criterion (i). For example, in Table 1 , setting ϕ = 0.17 in Criterion (iii) would closely ensure a similar level of strictness as Criterion (i) with p 1 = 0.4. Another point we wish to make is that the assurance probabilities of all criteria increase as ρ 12 increases. This makes intuitive sense because these two co-primary endpoints look more alike.

We recommend

  1. Shedding a tear may help
    MedicalXpress
  2. Study identifies possible biomarker for
    MedicalXpress
  3. Parkinson’s disease protein impedes nerve
    MedicalXpress
  1. Scientists show that a key
    MedicalXpress
  2. A new tool for understanding
    MedicalXpress
  3. Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy may
    MedicalXpress
I consent to the use of Google Analytics and related cookies across the TrendMD network (widget, website, blog). Learn more

Tags

Share this article

Post a comment